Wichtige „find“- Befehle für Linux

Anbei die wichtigsten und nützlichsten Find-Befehle, die man als Admin am häufigsten braucht.

Findet alle Dateien, die mit .log aufhören und listet sie auf.

find . -type f -name "*.log"

Findet XML Dateien und löscht diese.

find . -type f name "*.xml" -exec rm -rf {} \;

Anzahl an XML herausfinden.

find . -type f name "*.xml" | wc -l

Komplettes Manual:

FIND(1)                                        General Commands Manual                                       FIND(1)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [starting-point...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual  page  documents  the  GNU version of find.  GNU find searches the directory tree rooted at each
       given starting-point by evaluating the given expression from left to right, according to the rules of  prece‐
       dence  (see  section  OPERATORS), until the outcome is known (the left hand side is false for and operations,
       true for or), at which point find moves on to the next file name.  If no starting-point is specified, `.'  is
       assumed.

       If  you  are  using  find  in  an environment where security is important (for example if you are using it to
       search directories that are writable by other users), you should read the "Security  Considerations"  chapter
       of  the findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files and comes with findutils.   That document also
       includes a lot more detail and discussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more useful  source  of
       information.

OPTIONS
       The  -H,  -L  and -P options control the treatment of symbolic links.  Command-line arguments following these
       are taken to be names of files or directories to be examined, up to the first argument that begins with  `-',
       or  the  argument  `('  or  `!'.   That  argument  and any following arguments are taken to be the expression
       describing what is to be searched for.  If no paths are given, the current directory is used.  If no  expres‐
       sion  is  given,  the expression -print is used (but you should probably consider using -print0 instead, any‐
       way).

       This manual page talks about `options' within the expression list.  These options control  the  behaviour  of
       find  but  are specified immediately after the last path name.  The five `real' options -H, -L, -P, -D and -O
       must appear before the first path name, if at all.  A double dash -- can also be  used  to  signal  that  any
       remaining  arguments  are not options (though ensuring that all start points begin with either `./' or `/' is
       generally safer if you use wildcards in the list of start points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This is the default behaviour.  When find examines or prints information
              a  file,  and  the file is a symbolic link, the information used shall be taken from the properties of
              the symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information about  files,  the  information  used
              shall  be  taken  from  the  properties of the file to which the link points, not from the link itself
              (unless it is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to examine the file to which the link  points).
              Use  of this option implies -noleaf.  If you later use the -P option, -noleaf will still be in effect.
              If -L is in effect and find discovers a symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the  subdi‐
              rectory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

              When  the  -L  option is in effect, the -type predicate will always match against the type of the file
              that a symbolic link points to rather than the link itself  (unless  the  symbolic  link  is  broken).
              Actions  that  can cause symbolic links to become broken while find is executing (for example -delete)
              can give rise to confusing behaviour.  Using -L causes the -lname and  -ilname  predicates  always  to
              return false.

       -H     Do  not follow symbolic links, except while processing the command line arguments.  When find examines
              or prints information about files, the information used shall be taken from the properties of the sym‐
              bolic link itself.   The only exception to this behaviour is when a file specified on the command line
              is a symbolic link, and the link can be resolved.  For that situation, the information used  is  taken
              from  whatever  the  link  points  to (that is, the link is followed).  The information about the link
              itself is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the symbolic link cannot be examined.  If -H is
              in  effect  and  one of the paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a directory, the
              contents of that directory will be examined (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the others; the last one appearing on the com‐
       mand  line  takes effect.  Since it is the default, the -P option should be considered to be in effect unless
       either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing of the command line itself, before  any  searching  has
       begun.   These  options  also  affect how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests that compare files listed on the command line against a file we are  currently  considering.   In  each
       case,  the  file  specified  on the command line will have been examined and some of its properties will have
       been saved.  If the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the -P option is in effect (or if  neither  -H
       nor -L were specified), the information used for the comparison will be taken from the properties of the sym‐
       bolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties of the file the link points to.  If find  cannot
       follow the link (for example because it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a nonexistent file)
       the properties of the link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links listed as the argument of -newer will be derefer‐
       enced,  and the timestamp will be taken from the file to which the symbolic link points.  The same considera‐
       tion applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The -follow option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect at the point where it appears (that is,
       if  -L  is  not  used  but -follow is, any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will be
       dereferenced, and those before it will not).

       -D debugoptions
              Print diagnostic information; this can be helpful to diagnose problems with why find is not doing what
              you want.  The list of debug options should be comma separated.  Compatibility of the debug options is
              not guaranteed between releases of findutils.  For a complete list of valid  debug  options,  see  the
              output of find -D help.  Valid debug options include

              help   Explain the debugging options

              tree   Show the expression tree in its original and optimised form.

              stat   Print  messages  as  files are examined with the stat and lstat system calls.  The find program
                     tries to minimise such calls.

              opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to the optimisation of the expression tree; see  the  -O
                     option.

              rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each predicate succeeded or failed.

       -Olevel
              Enables  query  optimisation.   The find program reorders tests to speed up execution while preserving
              the overall effect; that is, predicates with side effects are not reordered relative  to  each  other.
              The optimisations performed at each optimisation level are as follows.

              0      Equivalent to optimisation level 1.

              1      This  is  the default optimisation level and corresponds to the traditional behaviour.  Expres‐
                     sions are reordered so that tests based only on the names  of  files  (for  example  -name  and
                     -regex) are performed first.

              2      Any  -type  or -xtype tests are performed after any tests based only on the names of files, but
                     before any tests that require information from the inode.  On many  modern  versions  of  Unix,
                     file types are returned by readdir() and so these predicates are faster to evaluate than predi‐
                     cates which need to stat the file first.  If you use the -fstype FOO predicate  and  specify  a
                     filesystem  type  FOO  which  is  not  known (that is, present in `/etc/mtab') at the time find
                     starts, that predicate is equivalent to -false.

              3      At this optimisation level, the full cost-based query optimiser is enabled.  The order of tests
                     is  modified  so  that  cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed first and more expensive ones are
                     performed later, if necessary.  Within each cost band,  predicates  are  evaluated  earlier  or
                     later  according  to  whether  they are likely to succeed or not.  For -o, predicates which are
                     likely to succeed are evaluated earlier, and for -a, predicates which are likely  to  fail  are
                     evaluated earlier.

              The  cost-based  optimiser has a fixed idea of how likely any given test is to succeed.  In some cases
              the probability takes account of the specific nature of the test (for example, -type f is  assumed  to
              be  more likely to succeed than -type c).  The cost-based optimiser is currently being evaluated.   If
              it does not actually improve the performance of find, it will be removed again.  Conversely, optimisa‐
              tions that prove to be reliable, robust and effective may be enabled at lower optimisation levels over
              time.  However, the default behaviour (i.e. optimisation level 1) will not be  changed  in  the  4.3.x
              release  series.   The  findutils test suite runs all the tests on find at each optimisation level and
              ensures that the result is the same.

EXPRESSION
       The part of the command line after the list of starting points is the expression.  This is a  kind  of  query
       specification  describing  how we match files and what we do with the files that were matched.  An expression
       is composed of a sequence of things:

       Tests  Tests return a true or false value, usually on the basis of some property of a file we  are  consider‐
              ing.  The -empty test for example is true only when the current file is empty.

       Actions
              Actions  have  side effects (such as printing something on the standard output) and return either true
              or false, usually based on whether or not they are successful.  The -print action for  example  prints
              the name of the current file on the standard output.

       Global options
              Global  options  affect  the operation of tests and actions specified on any part of the command line.
              Global options always return true.  The -depth option for example makes find traverse the file  system
              in a depth-first order.

       Positional options
              Positional  optiona  affect only tests or actions which follow them.  Positional options always return
              true.  The -regextype option for example is positional, specifying the regular expression dialect  for
              regulat expressions occurring later on the command line.

       Operators
              Operators  join  together the other items within the expression.  They include for example -o (meaning
              logical OR) and -a (meaning logical AND).  Where an operator is missing, -a is assumed.

       If the whole expression contains no actions other than -prune or -print, -print is performed on all files for
       which the whole expression is true.

       The -delete action also acts like an option (since it implies -depth).

   POSITIONAL OPTIONS
       Positional options always return true.  They affect only tests occurring later on the command line.

       -daystart
              Measure times (for -amin, -atime, -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and -mtime) from the beginning of today rather
              than from 24 hours ago.  This option only affects tests which appear later on the command line.

       -follow
              Deprecated; use the -L option instead.  Dereference symbolic links.   Implies  -noleaf.   The  -follow
              option affects only those tests which appear after it on the command line.  Unless the -H or -L option
              has been specified, the position of the -follow option changes the behaviour of the -newer  predicate;
              any  files listed as the argument of -newer will be dereferenced if they are symbolic links.  The same
              consideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type  predicate  will  always
              match  against the type of the file that a symbolic link points to rather than the link itself.  Using
              -follow causes the -lname and -ilname predicates always to return false.

       -regextype type
              Changes the regular expression syntax understood by -regex and -iregex tests which occur later on  the
              command line.  To see which regular expression types are known, use -regextype help.  The Texinfo doc‐
              umentation (see SEE ALSO) explains the meaning of and differences between the various types of regular
              expression.

       -warn, -nowarn
              Turn warning messages on or off.  These warnings apply only to the command line usage, not to any con‐
              ditions that find might encounter when it searches directories.  The default behaviour corresponds  to
              -warn if standard input is a tty, and to -nowarn otherwise.  If a warning message relating to command-
              line usage is produced, the exit status of find is not affected.  If the  POSIXLY_CORRECT  environment
              variable is set, and -warn is also used, it is not specified which, if any, warnings will be active.

   GLOBAL OPTIONS
       Global options always return true.  Global options take effect even for tests which occur earlier on the com‐
       mand line.  To prevent confusion, global options should specified on the command-line after the list of start
       points, just before the first test, positional option or action. If you specify a global option in some other
       place, find will issue a warning message explaining that this can be confusing.

       The global options occur after the list of start points, and so are not the same kind of option  as  -L,  for
       example.

       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility with FreeBSD, NetBSD, MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -depth Process  each  directory's  contents  before  the  directory  itself.  The -delete action also implies
              -depth.

       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
              Normally, find will emit an error message when it fails to stat a file.  If you give this option and a
              file  is  deleted  between the time find reads the name of the file from the directory and the time it
              tries to stat the file, no error message will be issued.    This also applies to files or  directories
              whose  names  are given on the command line.  This option takes effect at the time the command line is
              read, which means that you cannot search one part of the filesystem with this option on and part of it
              with  this  option  off (if you need to do that, you will need to issue two find commands instead, one
              with the option and one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
              Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer)  levels  of  directories  below  the  starting-points.
              -maxdepth 0
               means only apply the tests and actions to the starting-points themselves.

       -mindepth levels
              Do  not  apply  any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a non-negative integer).  -mindepth 1
              means process all files except the starting-points.

       -mount Don't descend directories on other filesystems.  An alternate name for -xdev, for  compatibility  with
              some other versions of find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
              Do  not  optimize  by  assuming  that  directories contain 2 fewer subdirectories than their hard link
              count.  This option is needed when searching filesystems that do not follow  the  Unix  directory-link
              convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems or AFS volume mount points.  Each directory on a nor‐
              mal Unix filesystem has at least 2 hard links: its name and its `.'  entry.  Additionally, its  subdi‐
              rectories  (if  any) each have a `..' entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining a direc‐
              tory, after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the directory's link count, it knows  that  the
              rest  of  the  entries  in the directory are non-directories (`leaf' files in the directory tree).  If
              only the files' names need to be examined, there is no need to stat them;  this  gives  a  significant
              increase in search speed.

       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Some  tests,  for  example -newerXY and -samefile, allow comparison between the file currently being examined
       and some reference file specified on the command line.  When these tests are used, the interpretation of  the
       reference file is determined by the options -H, -L and -P and any previous -follow, but the reference file is
       only examined once, at the time the command line is parsed.  If the reference file cannot  be  examined  (for
       example,  the  stat(2)  system  call fails for it), an error message is issued, and find exits with a nonzero
       status.

       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
              File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
              File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If file is a symbolic link  and  the  -H
              option or the -L option is in effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
              File  was  last  accessed n*24 hours ago.  When find figures out how many 24-hour periods ago the file
              was last accessed, any fractional part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a  file  has  to  have  been
              accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
              File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
              File's  status  was last changed more recently than file was modified.  If file is a symbolic link and
              the -H option or the -L option is in effect, the status-change time of the file it points to is always
              used.

       -ctime n
              File's status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to understand how rounding
              affects the interpretation of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -executable
              Matches files which are executable and directories which are searchable (in  a  file  name  resolution
              sense).   This takes into account access control lists and other permissions artefacts which the -perm
              test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by  NFS  servers
              which  do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's ker‐
              nel and so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.  Because  this  test  is
              based  only  on  the  result of the access(2) system call, there is no guarantee that a file for which
              this test succeeds can actually be executed.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
              File is on a filesystem of type type.  The valid filesystem types vary  among  different  versions  of
              Unix;  an incomplete list of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or another is:
              ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.  You can use -printf with the %F directive to see the  types
              of your filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
              Like  -lname, but the match is case insensitive.  If the -L option or the -follow option is in effect,
              this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the patterns `fo*' and  `F??'  match  the
              file names `Foo', `FOO', `foo', `fOo', etc.   The pattern `*foo*` will also match a file called '.foo‐
              bar'.

       -inum n
              File has inode number n.  It is normally easier to use the -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
              Like -path.  but the match is case insensitive.

       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
              See -ipath.  This alternative is less portable than -ipath.

       -links n
              File has n links.

       -lname pattern
              File is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do  not  treat
              `/'  or  `.'  specially.  If the -L option or the -follow option is in effect, this test returns false
              unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
              File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
              File's data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to understand how  rounding
              affects the interpretation of file modification times.

       -name pattern
              Base  of  file  name  (the  path  with the leading directories removed) matches shell pattern pattern.
              Because the leading directories are removed, the file names considered for a  match  with  -name  will
              never  include  a  slash,  so  `-name  a/b'  will never match anything (you probably need to use -path
              instead).  A warning is issued if you try to do this, unless the environment variable  POSIXLY_CORRECT
              is  set.  The metacharacters (`*', `?', and `[]') match a `.' at the start of the base name (this is a
              change in findutils-4.2.2; see section STANDARDS CONFORMANCE below).  To ignore a  directory  and  the
              files  under it, use -prune; see an example in the description of -path.  Braces are not recognised as
              being special, despite the fact that some shells including Bash imbue braces with a special meaning in
              shell  patterns.   The filename matching is performed with the use of the fnmatch(3) library function.
              Don't forget to enclose the pattern in quotes in order to protect it from expansion by the shell.

       -newer file
              File was modified more recently than file.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H  option  or  the  -L
              option is in effect, the modification time of the file it points to is always used.

       -newerXY reference
              Succeeds  if timestamp X of the file being considered is newer than timestamp Y of the file reference.
              The letters X and Y can be any of the following letters:

              a   The access time of the file reference
              B   The birth time of the file reference
              c   The inode status change time of reference
              m   The modification time of the file reference
              t   reference is interpreted directly as a time

              Some combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for X to be t.  Some  combinations  are  not
              implemented  on  all  systems; for example B is not supported on all systems.  If an invalid or unsup‐
              ported combination of XY is specified, a fatal error results.  Time specifications are interpreted  as
              for  the argument to the -d option of GNU date.  If you try to use the birth time of a reference file,
              and the birth time cannot be determined, a fatal error message results.  If you specify a  test  which
              refers  to  the  birth time of files being examined, this test will fail for any files where the birth
              time is unknown.

       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -path pattern
              File name matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do not treat `/' or  `.'  specially;  so,
              for example,
                        find . -path "./sr*sc"
              will  print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if one exists).  To ignore a whole directory
              tree, use -prune rather than checking every file in the tree.  For  example,  to  skip  the  directory
              `src/emacs'  and  all files and directories under it, and print the names of the other files found, do
              something like this:
                        find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print
              Note that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name, starting from one of the start points
              named on the command line.  It would only make sense to use an absolute path name here if the relevant
              start point is also an absolute path.  This means that this command will never match anything:
                        find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
              Find compares the -path argument with the concatenation of a directory name and the base name  of  the
              file it's examining.  Since the concatenation will never end with a slash, -path arguments ending in a
              slash will match nothing (except perhaps a start point specified on the command line).  The  predicate
              -path is also supported by HP-UX find and will be in a forthcoming version of the POSIX standard.

       -perm mode
              File's permission bits are exactly mode (octal or symbolic).  Since an exact match is required, if you
              want to use this form for symbolic modes, you may have to specify a rather complex mode  string.   For
              example  `-perm  g=w'  will only match files which have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group write
              permission is the only permission set).  It is more likely that you will want to use the  `/'  or  `-'
              forms, for example `-perm -g=w', which matches any file with group write permission.  See the EXAMPLES
              section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
              All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are accepted in this  form,  and
              this  is usually the way in which you would want to use them.  You must specify `u', `g' or `o' if you
              use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
              Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are accepted in this form.   You
              must  specify `u', `g' or `o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See the EXAMPLES section for some illustra‐
              tive examples.  If no permission bits in mode are set, this test matches any file (the idea here is to
              be consistent with the behaviour of -perm -000).

       -perm +mode
              This is no longer supported (and has been deprecated since 2005).  Use -perm /mode instead.

       -readable
              Matches  files which are readable.  This takes into account access control lists and other permissions
              artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system call, and so  can
              be  fooled  by  NFS  servers  which  do  UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems implement
              access(2) in the client's kernel and so cannot make use of the UID mapping  information  held  on  the
              server.

       -regex pattern
              File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match on the whole path, not a search.  For
              example, to match a file named `./fubar3', you can use the regular expression  `.*bar.'  or  `.*b.*3',
              but not `f.*r3'.  The regular expressions understood by find are by default Emacs Regular Expressions,
              but this can be changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
              File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is in effect, this can include symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
              File uses n units of space, rounding up.  The following suffixes can be used:

              `b'    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is used)

              `c'    for bytes

              `w'    for two-byte words

              `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

              `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

              `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

              The size does not count indirect blocks, but it does count blocks in sparse files that are  not  actu‐
              ally  allocated.  Bear in mind that the `%k' and `%b' format specifiers of -printf handle sparse files
              differently.  The `b' suffix always denotes 512-byte blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is dif‐
              ferent to the behaviour of -ls.

              The  +  and  -  prefixes  signify greater than and less than, as usual.  Bear in mind that the size is
              rounded up to the next unit. Therefore -size -1M is not equivalent to  -size  -1048576c.   The  former
              only matches empty files, the latter matches files from 1 to 1,048,575 bytes.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic  link;  this is never true if the -L option or the -follow option is in effect, unless
                     the symbolic link is broken.  If you want to search for symbolic links when -L  is  in  effect,
                     use -xtype.

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
              File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
              See -path.  This alternative is less portable than -path.

       -writable
              Matches  files which are writable.  This takes into account access control lists and other permissions
              artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system call, and so  can
              be  fooled  by  NFS  servers  which  do  UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems implement
              access(2) in the client's kernel and so cannot make use of the UID mapping  information  held  on  the
              server.

       -xtype c
              The  same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For symbolic links: if the -H or -P option was
              specified, true if the file is a link to a file of type c; if the -L option has been given, true if  c
              is  `l'.   In  other words, for symbolic links, -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not
              check.

       -context pattern
              (SELinux only) Security context of the file matches glob pattern.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
              Delete files; true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed,  an  error  message  is  issued.   If
              -delete fails, find's exit status will be nonzero (when it eventually exits).  Use of -delete automat‐
              ically turns on the `-depth' option.

              Warnings: Don't forget that the find command line is evaluated as an expression,  so  putting  -delete
              first will make find try to delete everything below the starting points you specified.  When testing a
              find command line that you later intend to use with -delete, you should explicitly specify  -depth  in
              order  to  avoid  later surprises.  Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and
              -delete together.

       -exec command ;
              Execute command; true if 0 status is returned.  All following arguments to find are taken to be  argu‐
              ments  to the command until an argument consisting of `;' is encountered.  The string `{}' is replaced
              by the current file name being processed everywhere it occurs in the arguments  to  the  command,  not
              just  in  arguments where it is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both of these constructions might
              need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to protect them from expansion by the shell.  See the  EXAM‐
              PLES  section for examples of the use of the -exec option.  The specified command is run once for each
              matched file.  The command is executed in the starting directory.    There  are  unavoidable  security
              problems surrounding use of the -exec action; you should use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {} +
              This  variant  of  the  -exec action runs the specified command on the selected files, but the command
              line is built by appending each selected file name at the end; the total number of invocations of  the
              command  will  be  much  less than the number of matched files.  The command line is built in much the
              same way that xargs builds its command lines.  Only one instance of `{}' is allowed  within  the  com‐
              mand.  The command is executed in the starting directory.  If find encounters an error, this can some‐
              times cause an immediate exit, so some pending commands may not be run at all.  This variant of  -exec
              always returns true.

       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
              Like  -exec, but the specified command is run from the subdirectory containing the matched file, which
              is not normally the directory in which you started find.  This a much more secure method for  invoking
              commands,  as  it avoids race conditions during resolution of the paths to the matched files.  As with
              the -exec action, the `+' form of -execdir will build a command line to process more than one  matched
              file,  but  any  given invocation of command will only list files that exist in the same subdirectory.
              If you use this option, you must ensure that your $PATH environment variable does not  reference  `.';
              otherwise,  an  attacker  can  run  any commands they like by leaving an appropriately-named file in a
              directory in which you will run -execdir.  The same applies to having entries in $PATH which are empty
              or  which  are not absolute directory names.  If find encounters an error, this can sometimes cause an
              immediate exit, so some pending commands may not be run at all. The result of the  action  depends  on
              whether  the  +  or  the  ;  variant  is  being used; -execdir command {} + always returns true, while
              -execdir command {} ; returns true only if command returns 0.

       -fls file
              True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always created, even if the  predi‐
              cate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters
              in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not exist when find is run,  it  is  cre‐
              ated;  if  it does exist, it is truncated.  The file names `/dev/stdout' and `/dev/stderr' are handled
              specially; they refer to the standard output and standard error output, respectively.  The output file
              is  always  created,  even  if  the predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for
              information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
              True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always  created,  even  if  the
              predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual char‐
              acters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
              True; like -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always  created,  even  if  the
              predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual char‐
              acters in filenames are handled.

       -ls    True; list current file in ls -dils format on standard output.  The block counts  are  of  1K  blocks,
              unless  the  environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are used.  See
              the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
              Like -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run the command.  Otherwise just return false.
              If the command is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

              The  response  to the prompt is matched against a pair of regular expressions to determine if it is an
              affirmative or negative response.  This  regular  expression  is  obtained  from  the  system  if  the
              `POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment variable is set, or otherwise from find's message translations.  If the
              system has no suitable definition, find's own definition will be used.   In either case, the interpre‐
              tation  of  the  regular  expression  itself  will be affected by the environment variables 'LC_CTYPE'
              (character classes) and 'LC_COLLATE' (character ranges and equivalence classes).

       -okdir command ;
              Like -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.  If the user  does  not  agree,  just
              return false.  If the command is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a newline.   If you are piping the
              output of find into another program and there is the faintest possibility that the files which you are
              searching  for  might  contain  a newline, then you should seriously consider using the -print0 option
              instead of -print.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters  in
              filenames are handled.

       -print0
              True;  print  the  full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character (instead of the
              newline character that -print uses).  This allows file names that contain newlines or other  types  of
              white  space to be correctly interpreted by programs that process the find output.  This option corre‐
              sponds to the -0 option of xargs.

       -printf format
              True; print format on the standard output, interpreting `\' escapes and `%' directives.  Field  widths
              and  precisions can be specified as with the `printf' C function.  Please note that many of the fields
              are printed as %s rather than %d, and this may mean that flags don't work as you might  expect.   This
              also  means that the `-' flag does work (it forces fields to be left-aligned).  Unlike -print, -printf
              does not add a newline at the end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush the output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \0     ASCII NUL.

              \\     A literal backslash (`\').

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A `\' character followed by any other character is treated as an ordinary character, so they both  are
              printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File's last access time in the format returned by the C `ctime' function.

              %Ak    File's  last  access  time in the format specified by k, which is either `@' or a directive for
                     the C `strftime' function.  The possible values for k are listed below; some of them might  not
                     be available on all systems, due to differences in `strftime' between systems.

                     @      seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with fractional part.

                     Time fields:

                     H      hour (00..23)

                     I      hour (01..12)

                     k      hour ( 0..23)

                     l      hour ( 1..12)

                     M      minute (00..59)

                     p      locale's AM or PM

                     r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

                     S      Second (00.00 .. 61.00).  There is a fractional part.

                     T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss.xxxxxxxxxx)

                     +      Date  and  time,  separated  by `+', for example `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.  This is a GNU
                            extension.  The time is given in the current timezone (which may be affected by  setting
                            the TZ environment variable).  The seconds field includes a fractional part.

                     X      locale's time representation (H:M:S).  The seconds field includes a fractional part.

                     Z      time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable

                     Date fields:

                     a      locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                     A      locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday)

                     b      locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                     B      locale's full month name, variable length (January..December)

                     c      locale's  date  and  time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989).  The format is the same as for
                            ctime(3) and so to preserve compatibility with that format, there is no fractional  part
                            in the seconds field.

                     d      day of month (01..31)

                     D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                     h      same as b

                     j      day of year (001..366)

                     m      month (01..12)

                     U      week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)

                     w      day of week (0..6)

                     W      week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53)

                     x      locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                     y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                     Y      year (1970...)

              %b     The  amount of disk space used for this file in 512-byte blocks.  Since disk space is allocated
                     in multiples of the filesystem block size this is usually greater than %s/512, but it can  also
                     be smaller if the file is a sparse file.

              %c     File's last status change time in the format returned by the C `ctime' function.

              %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by k, which is the same as for %A.

              %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a starting-point.

              %D     The device number on which the file exists (the st_dev field of struct stat), in decimal.

              %f     File's name with any leading directories removed (only the last element).

              %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be used for -fstype.

              %g     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no name.

              %G     File's numeric group ID.

              %h     Leading  directories  of  file's name (all but the last element).  If the file name contains no
                     slashes (since it is in the current directory) the %h specifier expands to ".".

              %H     Starting-point under which file was found.

              %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

              %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks.  Since disk  space  is  allocated  in
                     multiples of the filesystem block size this is usually greater than %s/1024, but it can also be
                     smaller if the file is a sparse file.

              %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a symbolic link).

              %m     File's permission bits (in octal).  This option uses the `traditional' numbers which most  Unix
                     implementations  use,  but  if your particular implementation uses an unusual ordering of octal
                     permissions bits, you will see a difference between the actual value of the file's mode and the
                     output  of  %m.   Normally you will want to have a leading zero on this number, and to do this,
                     you should use the # flag (as in, for example, `%#m').

              %M     File's permissions (in symbolic form, as for ls).  This directive  is  supported  in  findutils
                     4.2.5 and later.

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File's name.

              %P     File's name with the name of the starting-point under which it was found removed.

              %s     File's size in bytes.

              %S     File's sparseness.  This is calculated as (BLOCKSIZE*st_blocks / st_size).  The exact value you
                     will get for an ordinary file of a  certain  length  is  system-dependent.   However,  normally
                     sparse  files  will  have  values less than 1.0, and files which use indirect blocks may have a
                     value which is greater than 1.0.   The value used for BLOCKSIZE  is  system-dependent,  but  is
                     usually  512  bytes.    If  the  file size is zero, the value printed is undefined.  On systems
                     which lack support for st_blocks, a file's sparseness is assumed to be 1.0.

              %t     File's last modification time in the format returned by the C `ctime' function.

              %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified by k, which is the same as for %A.

              %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no name.

              %U     File's numeric user ID.

              %y     File's type (like in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't happen)

              %Y     File's type (like %y), plus follow symlinks: L=loop, N=nonexistent

              %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.

              %{ %[ %(
                     Reserved for future use.

              A `%' character followed by any other character is discarded,  but  the  other  character  is  printed
              (don't  rely on this, as further format characters may be introduced).  A `%' at the end of the format
              argument causes undefined behaviour since there is no following character.  In some  locales,  it  may
              hide your door keys, while in others it may remove the final page from the novel you are reading.

              The  %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the other directives do not, even if they
              print numbers.  Numeric directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k and  n.   The
              `-'  format  flag is supported and changes the alignment of a field from right-justified (which is the
              default) to left-justified.

              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in filenames  are  han‐
              dled.

       -prune True;  if  the  file  is  a  directory, do not descend into it.  If -depth is given, false; no effect.
              Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -quit  Exit immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but no more paths specified on the command
              line  will  be  processed.  For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only /tmp/foo.
              Any command lines which have been built up with -execdir ... {} + will be invoked before  find  exits.
              The exit status may or may not be zero, depending on whether an error has already occurred.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
              Force  precedence.   Since parentheses are special to the shell, you will normally need to quote them.
              Many of the examples in this manual page use  backslashes  for  this  purpose:  `\(...\)'  instead  of
              `(...)'.

       ! expr True  if  expr  is false.  This character will also usually need protection from interpretation by the
              shell.

       -not expr
              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
              Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied "and"; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1
              is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
              List;  both  expr1  and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of expr1 is discarded; the value of the
              list is the value of expr2.  The comma operator can be useful  for  searching  for  several  different
              types of thing, but traversing the filesystem hierarchy only once.  The -fprintf action can be used to
              list the various matched items into several different output files.

       Please note that -a when specified implicitly (for example by two tests appearing without an explicit  opera‐
       tor  between  them) or explicitly has higher precedence than -o.  This means that find . -name afile -o -name
       bfile -print will never print afile.

UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many of the actions of find result in the printing of data which is under the control of other  users.   This
       includes  file  names, sizes, modification times and so forth.  File names are a potential problem since they
       can contain any character except `\0' and `/'.  Unusual characters in file names can do unexpected and  often
       undesirable  things to your terminal (for example, changing the settings of your function keys on some termi‐
       nals).  Unusual characters are handled differently by various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
              Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if the output is going to a terminal.

       -ls, -fls
              Unusual characters are always escaped.  White  space,  backslash,  and  double  quote  characters  are
              printed  using  C-style escaping (for example `\f', `\"').  Other unusual characters are printed using
              an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls and -fls these are the characters between  octal
              041 and 0176) are printed as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
              If the output is not going to a terminal, it is printed as-is.  Otherwise, the result depends on which
              directive is in use.  The directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y expand to  values  which  are  not
              under  control of files' owners, and so are printed as-is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m,
              %M, %n, %s, %t, %u and %U have values which are under the control of files' owners but which cannot be
              used  to  send arbitrary data to the terminal, and so these are printed as-is.  The directives %f, %h,
              %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same way as for GNU ls.  This is  not  the
              same quoting mechanism as the one used for -ls and -fls.  If you are able to decide what format to use
              for the output of find then it is normally better to use `\0' as a terminator than to use newline,  as
              file  names can contain white space and newline characters.  The setting of the `LC_CTYPE' environment
              variable is used to determine which characters need to be quoted.

       -print, -fprint
              Quoting is handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.  If you are using find in a script  or
              in  a  situation where the matched files might have arbitrary names, you should consider using -print0
              instead of -print.

       The -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may change in a future release.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For closest compliance to the POSIX standard, you should set the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment  variable.   The
       following options are specified in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This  option  is  supported,  but  POSIX  conformance depends on the POSIX conformance of the system's
              fnmatch(3) library function.  As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for  exam‐
              ple)  will match a leading `.', because IEEE PASC interpretation 126 requires this.   This is a change
              from previous versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.   POSIX specifies `b', `c', `d', `l', `p', `f' and `s'.  GNU find also supports `D', repre‐
              senting a Door, where the OS provides these.

       -ok    Supported.   Interpretation  of  the  response is according to the "yes" and "no" patterns selected by
              setting the `LC_MESSAGES' environment variable.  When the `POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment  variable  is
              set,  these patterns are taken system's definition of a positive (yes) or negative (no) response.  See
              the system's documentation for nl_langinfo(3), in particular YESEXPR and NOEXPR.    When `POSIXLY_COR‐
              RECT' is not set, the patterns are instead taken from find's own message catalogue.

       -newer Supported.   If  the  file  specified is a symbolic link, it is always dereferenced.  This is a change
              from previous behaviour, which used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see the  HISTORY
              section below.

       -perm  Supported.   If  the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is not set, some mode arguments (for example
              +a+x) which are not valid in POSIX are supported for backward-compatibility.

       Other predicates
              The predicates -atime, -ctime, -depth, -group, -links,  -mtime,  -nogroup,  -nouser,  -print,  -prune,
              -size,  -user  and  -xdev  `-atime',  `-ctime',  `-depth',  `-group',  `-links', `-mtime', `-nogroup',
              `-nouser', `-perm', `-print', `-prune', `-size', `-user' and `-xdev', are all supported.

       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the `and' and `or' operators ( -a, -o).

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions beyond the POSIX  standard.   Many  of
       these extensions are not unique to GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:

              The find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering a previously visited directory that is
              an ancestor of the last file encountered.  When it detects an infinite loop, find shall write a  diag‐
              nostic message to standard error and shall either recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU  find  complies  with  these requirements.  The link count of directories which contain entries which are
       hard links to an ancestor will often be lower than they otherwise should be.  This can  mean  that  GNU  find
       will  sometimes  optimise away the visiting of a subdirectory which is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since
       find does not actually enter such a subdirectory, it is allowed  to  avoid  emitting  a  diagnostic  message.
       Although  this  behaviour may be somewhat confusing, it is unlikely that anybody actually depends on this be‐
       haviour.  If the leaf optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the directory entry will always be exam‐
       ined  and  the  diagnostic  message will be issued where it is appropriate.  Symbolic links cannot be used to
       create filesystem cycles as such, but if the -L option or the -follow option is in use, a diagnostic  message
       is issued when find encounters a loop of symbolic links.  As with loops containing hard links, the leaf opti‐
       misation will often mean that find knows that it doesn't need to call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic link,
       so this diagnostic is frequently not necessary.

       The -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems, but you should use the POSIX-compliant
       option -depth instead.

       The POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable does not affect the behaviour of the -regex or -iregex tests because
       those tests aren't specified in the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or null.

       LC_ALL If  set  to  a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization vari‐
              ables.

       LC_COLLATE
              The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pattern matching to be used for the  -name
              option.    GNU  find  uses the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for `LC_COLLATE' depends on
              the system library.    This variable also affects the interpretation of the response to -ok; while the
              `LC_MESSAGES' variable selects the actual pattern used to interpret the response to -ok, the interpre‐
              tation of any bracket expressions in the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.

       LC_CTYPE
              This variable affects the treatment of character classes used in regular expressions and also with the
              -name test, if the system's fnmatch(3) library function supports this.  This variable also affects the
              interpretation of any character classes in the regular expressions used to interpret the  response  to
              the  prompt  issued by -ok.  The `LC_CTYPE' environment variable will also affect which characters are
              considered to be unprintable when filenames are printed; see the section UNUSUAL FILENAMES.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.  If the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment
              variable is set, this also determines the interpretation of the response to the prompt made by the -ok
              action.

       NLSPATH
              Determines the location of the internationalisation message catalogues.

       PATH   Affects the directories which are searched to find the executables invoked by -exec, -execdir, -ok and
              -okdir.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Determines  the  block  size used by -ls and -fls.  If POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, blocks are units of 512
              bytes.  Otherwise they are units of 1024 bytes.

              Setting this variable also turns off warning messages (that is, implies -nowarn) by  default,  because
              POSIX  requires that apart from the output for -ok, all messages printed on stderr are diagnostics and
              must result in a non-zero exit status.

              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like -perm /zzz if +zzz  is  not  a  valid
              symbolic mode.  When POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, such constructs are treated as an error.

              When  POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, the response to the prompt made by the -ok action is interpreted accord‐
              ing to the system's message catalogue, as opposed to according to find's own message translations.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the time-related format directives of -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.  Note that this will  work  incorrectly
       if there are any filenames containing newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them, processing filenames in such a way that
       file or directory names containing single or double quotes, spaces or newlines are  correctly  handled.   The
       -name test comes before the -type test in order to avoid having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs  `file'  on every file in or below the current directory.  Notice that the braces are enclosed in single
       quote marks to protect them from interpretation as shell script punctuation.  The semicolon is similarly pro‐
       tected by the use of a backslash, though single quotes could have been used in that case also.

       find / \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) , \
       \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)

       Traverse  the  filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories into /root/suid.txt and large files
       into /root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the last twenty-four hours.  This command
       works this way because the time since each file was last modified is divided by 24 hours and any remainder is
       discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0, a file will have to have a modification in the past  which  is
       less than 24 hours ago.

       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print

       Search for files which are executable but not readable.

       find . -perm 664

       Search  for  files which have read and write permission for their owner, and group, but which other users can
       read but not write to.  Files which meet these criteria but have other permissions bits set (for  example  if
       someone can execute the file) will not be matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search  for  files  which have read and write permission for their owner and group, and which other users can
       read, without regard to the presence of any extra permission bits (for example  the  executable  bit).   This
       will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their group, or anybody else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All  three  of  these commands do the same thing, but the first one uses the octal representation of the file
       mode, and the other two use the symbolic form.  These commands all search for files  which  are  writable  by
       either  their  owner  or  their group.  The files don't have to be writable by both the owner and group to be
       matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same thing; search for files which are writable by  both  their  owner  and  their
       group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These two commands both search for files that are readable for everybody ( -perm -444 or -perm -a+r), have at
       least one write bit set ( -perm /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not executable for anybody ( ! -perm /111  and  !
       -perm /a+x respectively).

       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name *~ -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This command copies the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits files and directories named .snapshot
       (and anything in them).  It also omits files or directories whose name ends in ~,  but  not  their  contents.
       The  construct  -prune  -o  \(  ...  -print0 \) is quite common.  The idea here is that the expression before
       -prune matches things which are to be pruned.  However, the -prune action itself returns true, so the follow‐
       ing  -o ensures that the right hand side is evaluated only for those directories which didn't get pruned (the
       contents of the pruned directories are not even visited, so their contents are irrelevant).   The  expression
       on  the  right hand side of the -o is in parentheses only for clarity.  It emphasises that the -print0 action
       takes place only for things that didn't have -prune applied to them.  Because  the  default  `and'  condition
       between  tests  binds more tightly than -o, this is the default anyway, but the parentheses help to show what
       is going on.

       find repo/ -exec test -d {}/.svn \; -or \
       -exec test -d {}/.git \; -or -exec test -d {}/CVS \; \
       -print -prune

       Given the following directory of projects and their associated SCM  administrative  directories,  perform  an
       efficient search for the projects' roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In  this example, -prune prevents unnecessary descent into directories that have already been discovered (for
       example we do not search project3/src because we already found project3/.svn), but ensures  sibling  directo‐
       ries (project2 and project3) are found.

EXIT STATUS
       find  exits  with status 0 if all files are processed successfully, greater than 0 if errors occur.   This is
       deliberately a very broad description, but if the return value is non-zero, you should not rely on  the  cor‐
       rectness of the results of find.

       When  some  error occurs, find may stop immediately, without completing all the actions specified.  For exam‐
       ple, some starting points may not have been examined or some pending program invocations for -exec ...  {}  +
       or -execdir ... {} + may not have been performed.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1),  locatedb(5),  updatedb(1),  xargs(1),  chmod(1),  fnmatch(3), regex(7), stat(2), lstat(2), ls(1),
       printf(3), strftime(3), ctime(3)

       The full documentation for find is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and find programs  are  prop‐
       erly installed at your site, the command info find should give you access to the complete manual.

HISTORY
       As  of  findutils-4.2.2,  shell  metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for example) used in filename patterns will
       match a leading `.', because IEEE POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.

       As of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches all files instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a nonzero value when  it  fails.   How‐
       ever,  find  will  not  exit  immediately.   Previously,  find's exit status was unaffected by the failure of
       -delete.

       Feature                Added in   Also occurs in
       -newerXY               4.3.3      BSD
       -D                     4.3.1
       -O                     4.3.1
       -readable              4.3.0
       -writable              4.3.0
       -executable            4.3.0
       -regextype             4.2.24
       -exec ... +            4.2.12     POSIX
       -execdir               4.2.12     BSD
       -okdir                 4.2.12
       -samefile              4.2.11
       -H                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -L                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -P                     4.2.5      BSD
       -delete                4.2.3

       -quit                  4.2.3
       -d                     4.2.3      BSD
       -wholename             4.2.0
       -iwholename            4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls                   4.0
       -ilname                3.8
       -iname                 3.8
       -ipath                 3.8
       -iregex                3.8

       The syntax -perm +MODE was removed in findutils-4.5.12, in favour of -perm /MODE.  The +MODE syntax had  been
       deprecated since findutils-4.2.21 which was released in 2005.

NON-BUGS
   Operator precedence surprises
       The  command find . -name afile -o -name bfile -print will never print afile because this is actually equiva‐
       lent to find . -name afile -o \( -name bfile -a -print \).  Remember that the precedence of -a is higher than
       that of -o and when there is no operator specified between tests, -a is assumed.

   “paths must precede expression” error message
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D ... [path...] [expression]

       This  happens  because *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in find actually receiving a command line
       like this:
       find . -name frcode.c locate.c word_io.c -print
       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of doing things this way, you should enclose  the  pat‐
       tern in quotes or escape the wildcard:
       $ find . -name '*.c' -print
       $ find . -name \*.c -print

BUGS
       There  are  security  problems  inherent  in  the behaviour that the POSIX standard specifies for find, which
       therefore cannot be fixed.  For example, the -exec action is inherently insecure, and -execdir should be used
       instead.  Please see Finding Files for more information.

       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.

       The best way to report a bug is to use the form at http://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.  The reason
       for this is that you will then be able to track progress  in  fixing  the  problem.    Other  comments  about
       find(1)  and  about  the findutils package in general can be sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join
       the list, send email to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

                                                                                                             FIND(1)

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Triopsi

Hi, mein Name ist Daniel R. Baumann. Ich bin seit 2007 Webseitenentwickler und entwickle bzw. administriere verschiedene Webprojekte. Ich berichte hier alle wichtigen News, Tipps und Tricks rund um das Thema IT.

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